In anthropometry special instruments designed to measure the human body are used. With 1mm pitch scale, Martin-type instruments are made to conveniently measure various human body parts.
As of the end of 2004, the measurements taken by a 3-D human body scanner do not necessarily match with those obtained by manual measurement. Measurements taken by 3-D scanners should not be regarded as equivalent to ones taken by traditional methods, unless their validity is properly evaluated.
The following manufacturers are offering measurement systems for measuring human body dimensions. We recommend checking and trying actual instruments, plus considering price and usability before purchasing.
- Yamakoshi Manufacturing, Co., Ltd. (Tel: 03-3895-9375, Fax: 03-3819-3549)
- Takei Scientific Instruments Co., Ltd. (Tel: 03-3787-1091, Fax: 03-5702-5082)
- GPM (Switzerland) [Authorized] dealer in Japan: General Science Corporation (Tel: 03-3583-0731, Fax: 03-3584-6247)
For human body measurements manually taken by an anthropometrist, reproducibility means how much measurement values differ when the same measurer measures the same subject twice. The measurement accuracy of 3-D shape scanners depends on the size of the measurement space and camera resolution as well as the detection method of markers placed on landmarks or autolandmarking method. For the reproducibility and accuracy of the measurement data taken by experienced anthropometrists the following references are available:
Kouchi M., et al., 1996: Random Errors in Anthropometry. Journal of Human Ergology, 25:155-166.
Kouchi M., et al., 1999: Interobserver errors in anthropometry. Journal of Human Ergology, 28:15-24.
Textbooks on Anthropometry
- Martin R., und R. Knussmanb, 1988: Anthropologie: Handbuch der vergleichenden Biologie de Menschen, Band I. Gustav Fischer. (In German)
The classic anthropometry textbook in German anthropology. Three editions have been published since the first edition was published in 1914. In the 1998 edition, an explanation about measurement in the ergonomics field is included.
- Lohman, T.G., A. F. Roche and R. Martorell eds., 1988: Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual. Human Kinetics Books. ISBN 0-87322-121-4.
In addition to measurement methods, topics such as measurement accuracy and which side to measure (right or left) are also included.
- Hiroshi Hoshi, 1989：Line Measurement Method of A Living Body. ISBN4-88699-003-7. Therapeia, Co., Ltd. Price: 3,914 Yen. (In Japanese)
Well explained book using abundant illustrations. Intended for the field of anthropology.
- Committee on Compilation of Lectures on Anthropology edition, 1991: Lectures on Anthropology, Supplemental Volume 1, Anthropometry・Biomeasurement・Human Bone Measurement Method. Yuzankaku, Inc. ISBN4-639-0035-9. Set of 2 books of somatometry and craniometry-osteometry. Price: 7,800 Yen. (In Japanese)
Intended mainly for the field of anthropology. One of a very small number of Japanese textbooks on craniometry and osteometry.
- National Institute of Bioscience and Human-Technology edition, 1994: Reference Manual of Anthropometry in Ergonomic Design, Nippon Shuppan Service. ISBN4-88922-086-0. (In Japanese) Price: 3,600 Yen
The measurements in Japanese Body Dimension Data for Ergonomic Design (National Institute of Bioscience and Human-Technology ed.) were taken according to the methods in this manual. Mainly includes measurement items for ergonomics.