Research > Digital Human for Human Centered Design

Human Foot Morphology

>> Japanese

Human foot morphology is intimately related to the fitting of the shoe. We study the human foot morphology in order to improve the fit of mass-produced shoes.
The size and shape of a shoe is determined by the shoe last on which it is manufactured. Foot size is used to determine the shoe size, and foot shape provides information on how to design the last shape.

>> Japanese shoe size system
Foot size

How to measure foot dimensions
Shoe size is represented by length and ball girth in the Japanese Industrial Standard. These two dimensions correspond to foot length and foot circumference respectively.
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Distribution of foot dimensions
Secular change has progressed in Japan. Younger people tend to have longer and narrower feet.
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Age change
A foot may become deformed during childhood.
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Allometry of foot and grading of shoe last
Allometry is the change in size-related proportions due to growth. In younger people, the tendency for longer feet to have a relatively small circumference is common.
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Foot shape

2-dimensional foot shape
The bending foot axis is a shape characteristic important in shoe fitting. Most Japanese feet are more or less outflared.
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3-dimensional foot shape
The 3-dimensional foot shape is correlated with the flexion foot axis. The most important variation in Japanese 3D foot shape is that contrasting a 'standard' type and a 'flat foot'.
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How to introduce shape characteristics to last design
Free Form Deformation is introduced for the analysis of 3D foot shape and for designing a shoe last for outflared feet.
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