Human Body Properties Database
AIST

AIST Human Body Database > Human Body Properties Database > Passive Joint Properties:Ankle

Ankle

Edrich-00-01

Author(s)Edrich, T., Riener, R. and Quintern, J.
TitleAnalysis of Passive Elastic Joint Moments in Paraplegics
JournalIEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.
Vol. & No.Vol.47, No.8 p.1058-1065
Year2000
Reference(s) Edrich-00-02
Edrich-00-03
Riener-99-01
Riener-99-02
Riener-99-03
Target Joint: Ankle
Direction: Flexion-Extention (Dorsiflexion-Plantar Flexion)
Characteristic(s): Elasticity
Measurement Condition Subjects: 3 males & 3 females, each with paraplegia
Age Span: 23-40
Country: Germany
Method: Estimation by quasi-static equilibration type 1-1)
Definition Edrich-00-1 Refer to the figure on the right side.
The definition of the knee angle is written by Edrich-00-02.
Expression of the data An exponential function of moment to the joint angle (unit:Nm)

Characteristics
  • These data are for the paraplegics, and are compared with those of unimpaired persons.
  • These contain even the difference of the elasticities by the change of the postures of the knee.
  • The measured characteristics are modeled, including the effects of the biarticular muscles.
  • Raw data of several postures exist.

Engin-79-05

Author(s)Engin, A.E.
TitlePassive Resistive Torques about Long Bone Axes of Major Human Joints
JournalAviat. Space, Environ, Medic.
Vol. & No.Vol.50, No.10 p.1052-1057
Year1979
Reference(s) Engin-79-01
Engin-79-02
Engin-79-03
Engin-79-04
Target Joint: Ankle
Direction: Lateral/Medial Rotation
Characteristic(s): Elasticity
Measurement Condition Subjects: 3 males
Age Span: -
Country: USA
Method: Estimation by quasi-static equilibration (type 1-3)
Definition Engin-79-5 Refer to the figure on the right side.
No description of the measurement posture exists.
Expression of the data Graph of a non-linear elastic resistance moment to joint angle
Function not shown
Characteristics
  • These data are the elastic moments around the axes along the long bone of the extremities.
  • The raw data of 3 subjects exist.
  • Active ROM and the passive resistance moment are compared.

Fujita-98-01

Author(s)Fujita, K. and Sato, H.
TitleIntrinsic viscoelasticity of ankle joint during standing
JournalProc. Intern. Conf. of the IEEE eng. Med. Biol. Soc.
Vol. & No.Vol.20, No.5 p.2343-2345
Year1998
Reference(s)
Target Joint: Ankle
Direction: Flexion-Extension (Dorsiflexion-Plantar Flexion)
Characteristic(s): Viscoelasticity
Measurement Condition Subjects: 10 persons
Age Span: -
Country: Japan
Method: Estimation by dynamic equilibration (type 2-2)
Definition Fujita-98-1 Refer to the figure on the right side.
The standard posture of the ankle angle is defined as that the plantar surface makes a right angle with a line through the fibular head and the medial malleolus.
Expression of the data Graph of a viscoelastic coefficients about 3 postures
Function not shown
Characteristics
  • These joint viscoelastic characteristics are identified using an estimation method of an inpedance in robot engineering.
  • 3 Postures are sitting, standing and single-leg standing. Even each significant difference is verified.
  • The viscoelasticity is measured during eys-open/closed sitting and standing.
  • The raw data of the joint angle and the joint moment about only 1 person exist.
  • The information of the properties of the subjects does not exist.

HQL-00-04

Author(s)Research institute of human engineering for quality life
TitleReport of "Measurement and evaluation of the human dynamic characteristics"
Journal
Vol. & No.Vol.
Year2000
Reference(s) HQL-00-01
HQL-00-02
HQL-00-03
HQL-00-05
HQL-00-06
NITE Human characteristics database
NITE Development of measurement methods for basic dynamic characteristics
Target Joint: Ankle
Direction: Flexion-Extension (Dorsiflexion-Plantar Flexion)
Characteristic(s): Elasticity
Measurement Condition Subjects: 104 males & 113 females名
Age Span: 20-79
Country: Japan
Method: Estimation by quasi-static equilibration (type 1-1)
Definition HQL-00-4
Refer to the figure on the right side.
Expression of the data
An exponential function of moment to joint angle (unit:Nm)
Right side of males:

Refer to this report about another data.
Characteristics
  • HQL, NITE, and Yamazaki Lab.(Keio Univ.) collaborate in this research.
  • The standard posture is determined as an interference of biarticular muscles does not come out during measuring.
  • The data is only about the elastic resistance during flexion and extension, and that of torso joint does not exist, too.
  • The data includes that of the generational, sexual, and bilateral distinctions.

Riener-99-01

Author(s)Riener, R. and Edrich, T.
TitleIdentification of passive elastic joint moments in the lower extremities
JournalJ. Biomech.
Vol. & No.Vol.32, No.5 p.539-544
Year1999
Reference(s) Riener-99-02
Riener-99-03
Edrich-00-01
Edrich-00-02
Edrich-00-03
Target Joint: Ankle
Direction: Flexion-Extension (Dorsiflexion-Plantar Flexion)
Characteristic(s): Elasticity
Measurement Condition Subjects: 10 males
Age Span: 23-29
Country: Germany
Method: Estimation by quasi-static equilibration (type 1-1)
Definition Riener-99-1 Refer to the figure on the right side.
The definition of the knee angle is written by Riener-99-02.
Expression of the data An exponential function of moment to joint angle (unit:Nm)

Characteristics
  • These contain even the difference of the elasticities by the change of the postures of the knee.
  • The measured characteristics are modeled, including the effects of the biarticular muscles.
  • The raw data about only 1 subject exists.

Siegler-84-01

Author(s)Siegler, S., Moskowitz, G.D. and Freedman W.
TitlePassive and Active components of the internal moment developed about the ankle joint during human ambulation
JournalJ. Biomech.
Vol. & No.Vol.17, No.9 p.647-652
Year1984
Reference(s)
Target Joint: Ankle
Direction: Flexion-Extension (Dorsiflexion-Plantar Flexion)
Characteristic(s): Elasticity
Measurement Condition Subjects: 5 unimpaired persons & 1 person with hemiplegia
Age Span: 23-39
Country: USA
Method: Estimation by quasi-static equilibration type 1-1)
Definition Siegler-84-1 Refer to the figure on the right side.
Notice that this defined angle is strictly not that between foot ang shank.
Expression of the data Graph of a non-linear elastic moment to joint angle
Function not shown
Characteristics
  • This data is measured in order to examine actions of the passive resistance of ankle during gait.
  • This paper is shown that the direction of articular rotation causes a hysteresis.
  • One of the subjects is with hemiplegia, which data is analyzed separately from others.

Weiss-86-01

Author(s)Weiss, P.L., Kearney R.E. and Hunter I.W.
TitlePosition Dependence of Ankle Joint Dynamics-I. Passive Mechanics
JournalJ. Biomech.
Vol. & No.Vol.19, No.9 p.727-735
Year1986
Reference(s)
Target Joint: Ankle
Direction: Flexion-Extension (Dorsiflexion-Plantar Flexion)
Characteristic(s): Viscoelasticity
Measurement Condition Subjects: 6 persons
Age Span: 22-32
Country: Canada
Method: Estimation by dynamic equilibration (type 2-2)
Definition Weiss-86 Refer to the figure on the right side.
The standard posture of the ankle angle is defined as that the plantar surface makes a right angle with a line through the fibular head and the medial malleolus.
Expression of the data Graph of a viscoelastic coefficient to joint angle
Function not shown
Characteristics
  • These joint viscoelastic characteristics are identified using an estimation method of an inpedance in robot engineering.
  • 10 trial about 1 subject are measured.
  • The graph of a non-linear elastic moment to joint angle exists.