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AIST Human Body Database > Human Body Properties Database > Passive Joint Properties:Elbow

Elbow

Engin-79-04

Author(s)Engin, A.E.
TitlePassive Resistive Torques about Long Bone Axes of Major Human Joints
JournalAviat. Space, Environ, Medic.
Vol. & No.Vol.50, No.10 p.1052-1057
Year1979
Reference(s) Engin-79-01
Engin-79-02
Engin-79-03
Engin-79-05
Target Joint: Elbow
Direction: Lateral/Medial Rotation (Pronation-Supination)
Characteristic(s): Elasticity
Measurement Condition Subjects: 3 males
Age Span: -
Country: USA
Method: Estimation by quasi-static equilibration (type 1-3)
Definition Engin-79-4 Refer to the figure on the right side.
Elbow medial and lateral angles are defined as those around the lower arm axis for 90 degree of elbow flexion.
Expression of the data Graph of a non-linear elastic resistance moment to joint angle
Function not shown
Characteristics
  • These data are the elastic moments around the axes along the long bone of the extremities.
  • The raw data of 3 subjects exist.
  • Active ROM and the passive resistance moment are compared.

Engin-87-01

Author(s)Engin, A.E. and Chen, S.M.
TitleKinematic and Passive Resistive Properties of Human Elbow Complex
JournalTrans. ASME J. Biomech. Eng.
Vol. & No.Vol.109, No.4 p.318-323
Year1987
Reference(s)
Target Joint: Elbow
Direction: Extention
Characteristic(s): Elasticity
Measurement Condition Subjects: 10 males
Age Span: 18-32
Country: USA
Method: Estimation by quasi-static equilibration (type 1-2)
Definition Engin-87-1 Refer to the figure on the right side.
The elbow joint angle is defined as that of the forearm from the posture of the upper arm. Refer this paper for details.
Expression of the data A cubic formula of moment to the elbow extension angle (unit:Nm)

Characteristics
  • The coefficients of the function are measured about each subjects. These coefficients of the above one are the average values.
  • The raw data of the joint moment to the joint angle about only 1 person exists.
  • o read a series of papers of Engin thoroughly is needed.

Gomi-98-02

Author(s)Gomi, H. and Osu, R
TitleTask-Dependent Viscoelasticity of Human Multijoint Arm and Its Spatial Characteristics for Interaction with Environments
JournalJ. Neuroscience
Vol. & No.Vol.18, No.21 p.8965-8978
Year1998
Reference(s)Gomi-98-01
Target Joint: Elbow
Direction: Horizontal Flexion-Extension
Characteristic(s): Viscoelasticity
Measurement Condition Subjects: 2 males & 2 females
Age Span: 23-34
Country: Japan
Method: Estimation by dynamic equilibration (type 2-2)
Definition Gomi-98-2 Refer to the figure on the right side.
Expression of the data Graph of a linear viscoelastic coefficient to joint angle.
Function not shown
Characteristics
  • Many related studies and data exist.
  • Originally, the purpose of this study is to propose the measuring method.
  • The difference of the stiffness by an environment is examined.

Hatze-97-01

Author(s)Hatze, H.
TitleA three-dimensional multivariate model of passive human joint torques and articular boundaries
JournalClin. Biomech.
Vol. & No.Vol.12, No.2 p.128-135
Year1997
Reference(s) Hayes-77-01
Hatze-97-02
Target Joint: Elbow
Direction: Flexion-Extention
Characteristic(s): Elasticity
Measurement Condition Subjects: 1 male
Age Span: 29
Country: Austria
Method: Estimation by quasi-static equilibration (type 1-3)
Definition Hatze-97-1 Refer to the figure on the right side.
The definitions of the elbow flexion and extension angles are written by Hatze-97-02.
Expression of the data Graph of a non-linear elastic moment to joint angle
Function not shown
Characteristics
  • The elastic resistance is measured in complex motion of pronation/supination of the forearm and flexion/extension of the elbow.

Hatze-97-02

Author(s)Hatze, H.
TitleA three-dimensional multivariate model of passive human joint torques and articular boundaries
JournalClin. Biomech.
Vol. & No.Vol.12, No.2 p.128-135
Year1997
Reference(s) Hayes-77-01
Hatze-97-01
Target Joint: Elbow
Direction: Pronation-Supination of forarm
Characteristic(s): Elasticity
Measurement Condition Subjects: 1 male
Age Span: 29
Country: Austria
Method: Estimation by quasi-static equilibration (type 1-3)
Definition Hatze-97-2 Refer to the figure on the right side.
The definitions of the pronation and spination angles of the forearm are written by Hatze-97-01.
Expression of the data ・Graph of a non-linear elastic moment to joint angle
・Function not shown
Characteristics
  • The elastic resistance is measured in complex motion of pronation/supination of the forearm and flexion/extension of the elbow.

Hayes-77-01

Author(s)Hayes, K.C. and Hatze, H.
TitlePassive Visco-Elastic Properties of the Structures Spanning the Human Elbow Joint
JournalEurop. J. appl. Physiol.
Vol. & No.Vol.37, No.4 p.265-274
Year1977
Reference(s) Hatze-97-01
Hatze-97-02
Target Joint: Elbow
Direction: Flexion-Extention
Characteristic(s): Viscoelasticity
Measurement Condition Subjects: 3 males
Age Span: 26-29
Country: Canada
Method: Estimation by dynamic equilibration (type 2-1)
Definition Hayes-77-1 Refer to the figure on the right side.
Expression of the data Elasticity: Graph of a elastic moment to joint angle, function not shown
Viscosity: A quadratic function of the coefficient to joint angle (unit:Nms/deg)

Characteristics
  • The viscoelasticity is estimated from the oscillation of the forearm with the fixed upper arm.
  • The raw data of the elastic reistance to the joint angle about 3 persons exist.
  • The viscous coefficient function is defined about only 1 person. The patterns of damping oscillation about 3 persons are shown.

HQL-00-02

Author(s)Research institute of human engineering for quality life
TitleReport of "Measurement and evaluation of the human dynamic characteristics"
Journal
Vol. & No.Vol.
Year2000
Reference(s) HQL-00-01
HQL-00-03
HQL-00-04
HQL-00-05
HQL-00-06
NITE Human characteristics database
NITE Development of measurement methods for basic dynamic characteristics
Target Joint: Elbow
Direction: Flexion-Extention
Characteristic(s): Elasticity
Measurement Condition Subjects: 112 males & 122 females
Age Span: 20-79
Country: Japan
Method: Estimation by quasi-static equilibration (type 1-1)
Definition HQL-00-2 Refer to the figure on the right side.
Expression of the data
An exponential function of moment to joint angle (unit:Nm)
ght side of males:

Refer to this report about another data.
Characteristics
  • HQL, NITE, and Yamazaki Lab.(Keio Univ.) collaborate in this research.
  • The standard posture is determined as an interference of biarticular muscles does not come out during measuring.
  • The data is only about the elastic resistance during flexion and extension, and that of torso joint does not exist, too.
  • The data includes that of the generational, sexual, and bilateral distinctions.

Xu-98-01

Author(s)Xu, Y., and Hollerbach, J.M.
TitlePosition Dependence of Ankle Joint Dynamics-I. Passive Mechanics
JournalIEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.
Vol. & No.Vol.45, No.8 p.1051-1060
Year1998
Reference(s)Xu-99-01
Target Joint: Elbow
Direction: Flexion-Extention
Characteristic(s): Viscoelasticity
Measurement Condition Subjects: 4 males & 1 female
Age Span: 22-26
Country: USA
Method: Estimation by dynamic equilibration (type 2-2)
Definition Xu-98 Refer to the figure on the right side.
The posture of the upper arm in parallel on the horizontal plane and the forearm standing vertically is defined as the standard poture of elbow.
Expression of the data Graph of a viscoelastic coefficient (and moment of inearia) to joint angle
Function not shown
Characteristics
  • These joint viscoelastic characteristics are identified using an estimation method of an inpedance in robot engineering.
  • The main purpose of this paper is about the technique of the estimation method.

Xu-99-01

Author(s)Xu, Y., and Hollerbach, J.M.
TitleA Robust Ensemble Data Method for Identification of Human Joint Mechanical Properties During Movement
JournalIEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.
Vol. & No.Vol.46, No.4 p.409-419
Year1999
Reference(s)Xu-98-01
Target Joint: Elbow
Direction: Flexion-Extention
Characteristic(s): Viscoelasticity
Measurement Condition Subjects: 3 males & 1 female
Age Span: 22-32
Country: USA
Method: Estimation by dynamic equilibration (type 2-2)
Definition Xu-99 Refer to the figure on the right side.
The posture of the upper arm in parallel on the horizontal plane and the forearm standing vertically is defined as the standard poture of elbow.
Expression of the data Graph of a viscoelastic coefficient (and moment of inearia) to joint angle
Function not shown
Characteristics
  • These joint viscoelastic characteristics are identified using an estimation method of an inpedance in robot engineering.
  • The main purpose of this paper is about the technique of the estimation method.