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Knee

Edrich-00-02

Author(s)Edrich, T., Riener, R. and Quintern, J.
TitleAnalysis of Passive Elastic Joint Moments in Paraplegics
JournalIEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.
Vol. & No.Vol.47, No.8 p.1058-1065
Year2000
Reference(s) Edrich-00-01
Edrich-00-03
Riener-99-01
Riener-99-02
Riener-99-03
Target Joint: Knee
Direction: Flexion-Extention
Chearacteristic(s): Elasticity
Measurement Condition Subjects: 3 males & 3 females, each with paraplegia
Age Span: 23-40
Country: Germany
Method: Estimation by quasi-static equilibration (type 1-1)
Definition Edrich-00-2 Refer to the figure on the right side.
The definitions of the ankle and knee angles are written by Edrich-00-01,and Edrich-00-03.
Expression of the data An exponential function of moment to the joint angle (unit:Nm)

Characteristics
  • These data are for the paraplegics, and are compared with those of unimpaired persons.
  • These contain even the difference of the elasticities by the change of the postures of the knee.
  • The measured characteristics are modeled, including the effects of the biarticular muscles.
  • Raw data of several postures exist.

Engin-79-03

Author(s)Engin, A.E.
TitlePassive Resistive Torques about Long Bone Axes of Major Human Joints
JournalAviat. Space, Environ, Medic.
Vol. & No.Vol.50, No.10 p.1052-1057
Year1979
Reference(s) Engin-79-01
Engin-79-02
Engin-79-04
Engin-79-05
Target Joint: Knee
Direction: Lateral/Medial Rotation
Chearacteristic(s): Elasticity
Measurement Condition Subjects: 3 males
Age Span: -
Country: USA
Method: Estimation by quasi-static equilibration (type 1-3)
Definition Engin-79-3 Refer to the figure on the right side.
Knee medial and lateral angles are defined as those around the tibial axis for 90 degree of knee flexion.
Expression of the data Graph of a non-linear elastic resistance moment to joint angle
Function not shown
Characteristics
  • The raw data of 3 subjects exist.
  • Active ROM and the passive resistance moment are compared.

HQL-00-05

Author(s)Research institute of human engineering for quality life
TitleReport of "Measurement and evaluation of the human dynamic characteristics"
Journal
Vol. & No.Vol.
Year2000
Reference(s) HQL-00-01
HQL-00-02
HQL-00-03
HQL-00-04
HQL-00-06
NITE Human characteristics database
NITE Development of measurement methods for basic dynamic characteristics
Target Joint: Knee
Direction: Flexion-Extention
Chearacteristic(s): Elasticity
Measurement Condition Subjects: 109 males & 111 females
Age Span: 20-79
Country: Japan
Method: Estimation by quasi-static equilibration (type 1-1)
Definition HQL-00-5 Refer to the figure on the right side.
Expression of the data
An exponential function of moment to joint angle (unit:Nm)
Right side of males:

Refer to this report about another data.
Characteristics
  • HQL, NITE, and Yamazaki Lab.(Keio Univ.) collaborate in this research.
  • The standard posture is determined as an interference of biarticular muscles does not come out during measuring.
  • The data is only about the elastic resistance during flexion and extension, and that of torso joint does not exist, too.
  • The data includes that of the generational, sexual, and bilateral distinctions.

Mansour-86-01

Author(s)Mansour, J.M. and Audu, M.L.
TitleThe Passive Elastic Moment at the Knee and its Influence on Human Gait
JournalJ. Biomech.
Vol. & No.Vol.19, No.5 P.369-373
Year1986
Reference(s)Yoon-82-01
Target Joint: Knee
Direction: Flexion-Extention
Chearacteristic(s): Elasticity
Measurement Condition Subjects: 4 males
Age Span: 23-30
Country: USA
Method: Estimation by quasi-static equilibration (type 1-2)
Measurement Condition Mansour-86-1 Refer to the figure on the right side.
Expression of the data Graph of a non-linear elastic moment to joint angle
Function not shown
Characteristics
  • The elastic characteristics of knee are measured when the posture of ankle and hip changes.
  • This paper is shown that the direction of articular rotation causes a hysteresis.
  • Originally, the purpose of this paper is to examine effects of the knee passive characteristic during gait.
  • The raw data of 2 subjects exist, but not all.

Riener-99-02

Author(s)Riener, R. and Edrich, T.
TitleIdentification of passive elastic joint moments in the lower extremities
JournalJ. Biomech.
Vol. & No.Vol.32, No.5 p.539-544
Year1999
Reference(s) Riener-99-01
Riener-99-03
Edrich-00-01
Edrich-00-02
Edrich-00-03
Target Joint: Knee
Direction: Flexion-Extention
Chearacteristic(s): Elasticity
Measurement Condition Subjects: 10 males
Age Span: 23-29
Country: Germany
Method: Estimation by quasi-static equilibration (type 1-1)
Definition Riener-99-2 Refer to the figure on the right side.
The definitions of the ankle and knee angles are written by Riener-99-01,and Riener-99-03.
Expression of the data An exponential function of moment to joint angle (unit:Nm)

Characteristics
  • These contain even the difference of the elasticities by the change of the postures of the knee.
  • The measured characteristics are modeled, including the effects of the biarticular muscles.
  • The raw data about only 1 subject exists.

Zhang-01-01

Author(s)Zhang, L.Q. and Wang, G.
TitleDynamic and static control of the human knee joint in abduction-adduction
JournalJ. Biomech.
Vol. & No.Vol.34, No.9 p.1107-1115
Year2001
Reference(s)
Target Joint: Knee
Direction: Abduction-Adduction
Chearacteristic(s): Viscoelasticity
Measurement Condition Subjects: 9 males
Age Span: -
Country: USA
Method: Estimation by dynamic equilibration (type 2-2)
Definition Zhang-01 Refer to the figure on the right side.
Expression of the data Graph of a linear viscoelastic coefficient to joint angle
Function not shown
Characteristics
  • These joint viscoelastic characteristics are identified using an estimation method of an inpedance in robot engineering.
  • Active characteristics for the action of muscles are estimated.
  • About only 1 person, graph of a joint elastic resistance moment to joint angle exists.