Anthropometric and mass distribution characteristics of the adult female
Reference  Anthropometric and mass distribution characteristics of the adult female 
Journal  FAAAM8316 
Author  J.W.Young 
Item  V COV I PAI(Principal axis of inertia) 
State  Living 
Sample number  46 
Sex  Female 
Age  2145 
Measurement year  n/a 
Race  Caucasian 
Measurement place  USA 
Measurement technique  Photogrammetry 
Raw data accesibility  NG 
(1)Definition of Body segment
24segments:head，Neck，Thorax，Abdomen，Pelvis，Upper arm，Forearm，Hand，Flap，Thigh，Calf，Foot，Thigh―Flap，Lower Arm＋Hand
a.Head―Neck
The cut plane passes through the left and right gonial points and nuchale
b.Neck―Thorax
The compound plane consists of two components. The horizontal plane originates at the cervicale, and passes anteriorly parallel with the standing surface.
The second plane originates at the lower of the two clavicale landmarks, rises 45 degree from the horizontal, and passes diagonally superiorlyposteriorly until it intersects with the horizontal plane.
c.Thorax―Abdomen
The cut plane begins at the 10th rib midspine landmark and passes through the torso parallel with the standing surface.
d.Abdomen―Pelvis
The cut plane begins at the higher of the two iliocristale landmarks and passes through the torso parallel with the standing surface.
e.Pelvis―Thigh
The cut plane begins at the center of the crotch and passes laterally midway between the anterior superior iliac spine and trochanteric landmarks along the line of the right and left inguinal ligaments.
f.Thigh－Flap
The cut plane begins at the gluteal furrow landmark and passes through the thigh parallel to the standing surface
g.Thigh―Calf
The cut plane passes through the lateral femoral epicondyle landmark parallel to the standing plane.
h.Calf―Foot
The cut plane begins at the sphyrion landmark and passes through the ankle parallel to the standing height.
i.Thorax―Upper Arm
The cut plane begins at the acromion landmark and passes downward through the anterior and posterior scye creases at the level of the axilla.
j.Upper arm―Forearm
The cut plane begins at the olecranon landmark and passes through the medial and lateral humeral epicondyle landmarks.
k.Forearm―Hand
The cut plane begins at the ulnar and radial styloid landmark and passes through the wrist perpendicular to the long axis of the forearm.
(2)Predictive model
 The center of volume is calculated as the mean distance from the anatomical axis origin of each segments
 The principal axes of inertia are calculated as the mean angle with respect to the anatomical axis of each segments.
 Volume and principal moment of inertia are calculated using regression equations, as follows．
 A.Volume and principal moment of inertia are predicted using equations including body weight and stature.
 B.Volume and principal moment of inertia are predicted using equations including the three anthropometric variables that have the first, second and third greatest correlation coefficients of all variables.
(3)Validation

 A.Comparison of measurement of total and partial body volume data of 12 subjects between the photogrammetry method and the water displacement method.
 Result : Values of volume obtained using the photogrammetry method are estimated to be about 10% greater than those obtained using the water displacement method.

 B.Comparison of measurement of total body moments of inertia between photogrammetry and the mechanical oscillation method.
 Resullt : Values of moment obtained using photogrammetry exceed those obtained using the mechanical oscillation method by amounts ranging from 0.07 to 5.74%..

 C.Stature, total body volume, and total body inertia of four subjects are measured three times to estimate the accuracy and repeatability of photogrammetry.
 Result : stature: 0.020.13%
total body volume: 0.241.69%
total body inertia: 1.243.04%
Regression coefficients
Definition of the anatomical axis origin of each segment.
Procedure for defining the anatomical axis origin
 Three landmarks are used to establish the original plane.
 Two additional landmarks are used to establish a plane perpendicular to the first plane.
 A single landmark is used to establish a plane perpendicular to first two planes.
The origin of each axis system is the common point of intersection of the three planes. +Z is the direction from the origin towards the head; +X is the direction from the origin towards the front of the body; +Y is the direction from the origin towards the left of the body.
Segment  XY plane  YZ plane  XZ plane 
a.head  The plane passes through right and left tragion and right infraorbitale  The plane passes through right and left tragion, perpendicular to XY plane  The plane passese through sellion, perpendicular to XY and YZ plane 
b.neck  The plane passes through Adam's apple, cervicale and suprasternale.  The plane passes through one half the distance between the right clavicale and cervicale and the left clavicale and cervicale, perpendicular to XZ plane.  The plane passes through cervicale, perpendicular to XZ and XY plane. 
c.Thorax  The plane passes through suprasternale, cervicale and midspine at level of 10th rib.  The plane passes through cervicale and 10th rib level at midspine, perpendicular to XZ plane.  The plane passes through 10th rib level at midspine, perpendicular to XZ and YZ plane. 
d.Abdomen  The plane passes through right and left 10th rib and at midspine at level of 10th rib.  The plane passes through right and left 10th rib, perpendicula to XY plane.  The plane passes through 10th rib midspine, perpendicular to XY and YZ plane. 
e.Pelvis  The plane passes through right and left anterior superior iliac spine and symphsion.  The plane passes through right and left anterior superior iliac spine, perpendicular to YZ plane.  The plane passes through midspine at level of posterior superior iliac spine, perpendicular to YZ and XY plane. 
f.Right and left upper arm  The plane passes through acromion and right and left humeral epicondyles.  The plane passes through lateral epicondyle and acromion, perpendicular to YZ plane.  The plane passes through acromion, perpendicular to YZ and XZ plane 
g.Right and left forearm, forearm+hand  The plane passes through distal end of the ulnar and radial styloid processes and radiale.  The plane passes through distal end of the ulnar styloid process and radiale, perpendicular to YZ plane.  The plane passes through radiale, perpendicular to YZ and XZ plane. 
h.Right and left hand  The plane passes through dactylion and the lateral aspect of the metacarpalphalangealjoint of degits 2 and 4.  The plane passes through the lateral aspect of the metacarpalphalangeal joint of digits 2 and 4, perpendicular to YZ plane.  The plane passes through metacarpale 3, perpendicular to YZ and XY plane. 
i.Right and left thigh, flap, thighflap  The plane passes through trochanterion and right and left lateral femoral epicondyles.  The plane passes through lateral femoral epicondyles and trochanterion, perpendicular to YZ plane.  The plane passes through trochanterion, perpendicular to YZ and XZ plane. 
j.Right and left calf  The plane passes through tibiale, sphyrion and the lateral malleolus.  The plane passes through sphyrion and tibiale, perpendicular to YZ plane.  The plane passes through tibiale, perpendicular to YZ and XZ plane. 
j.Right and left foot  The plane passes through metatarsalphalangeal 1 and 5 landmarks and the posterior calcaneous.  The plane passes through tip of digit 2 and posterior calcaneous, perpendicular to plane.  The plane passes through metatarsalphalangeal 1 landmark, perpendicular to XY and XZ plane. 
The center of volume
The following table shows the mean distance from the anatomical axis origin of each segments.
Note:The dimension in the table is cm.
Principal axes of inertia
The following table shows mean principal axes of inertia with respect to anatomical axes cosine matrix expressed in degrees.
Ex.)
The mean X principal axis of head lies 42.19° from the anatomical xaxis of head, 91.23° from the anatomical yaxis and 47.83° from the anatomical zaxis.
Volume (independent variables: body weight and stature)
The following table shows regression coefficients.
Note:Volume in cm^{3}, weight in lb, body fat in mm and all other dimensions in cm.
Ex.)
Head volume(cm^{3})=34691.25×stature(cm)+4.45×Body weight(lb)
Principal moment of inertia (independent variables: body weight and stature)
The following table shows regression coefficients.
Note:Weight in lb, body fat in mm, moment of inertia in g・cm^{2}, all other dimension in cm.
Ex.)
Principal moment of inertia around xaxis(g・cm^{2})=14131695×stature(cm)+322×body weight(lb)
Volume (independent variables: three anthropometric variables)
The following table shows regression coefficients.
Note:Volume in cm^{3}, weight in lb, body fat in mm, all other dimensions in cm.
Ex.)
Head volume(cm^{3})=3722.51+132.85×head circumference(cm)+163.75×head height(cm)13.73×stature(cm)
Principal moment of inertia around xaxis (independent variables: three anthropometric variables)
The following table shows regression coefficients. > Yp, Zp
Note:Weight in lb, body fat in mm, moment of inertia in g・cm^{2}, all other dimension in cm.
Ex.)
Principal moment of inertia around xaxis(g・cm^{2})=381415+9857×head circumference(cm)+10819×head height(cm)968×Stature(cm)
Principal moment of inertia around yaxis (independent variables: three anthropometric variables)
The following table shows regression coefficients. > Xp, Zp
Note:Weight in lb, body fat in mm, moment of inertia in g・cm^{2}, all other dimension in cm.
Ex.)
Principal moment of inertia around yaxis(g・cm^{2})=470950+11702×head circumference(cm)+12566×head height(cm)1092×Stature(cm)